Ask for an indemnity.

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Commercial contracts are packed with risks. In fact the contract itself is one big risk. However, ironically, contracts are the safest way to conduct business; we need them! So, since we cannot avoid contracting with each other we have to ensure that we protect our interests in every contract that we sign. A key way to do this, is to ask for an indemnity clause.  An indemnity clause is a contractual transfer of risk between two contractual parties to prevent loss (you are not liable if X happens) or to ensure compensation for a loss (the other party reimburses you for any loss suffered if Y happens) which may occur as a result of a specified event (X or Y event). Let’s take a look at some examples of indemnity clauses:

  1. Basic Indemnities – Party A indemnifies Party B for all liabilities or losses incurred in connection with specified events or circumstances. For example, if you are contracting with a construction company to build your new store, you will want a basic indemnity saying that the construction company will compensate you for all losses if one of its subcontractors fails to do the job to the specification set out in the contract. If a subcontractor tiles the roof poorly, the construction company is liable for all losses ensuing from that subcontractor’s poor job. Pretty good right? However, basic indemnities can be troublesome as they do not set out any specific limitations on the indemnity. They are silent as to whether they indemnify losses arising out of YOUR own acts and/or omissions that cause the subcontractor to tile the roof poorly. What if you give the sub-contractor the wrong instructions or you don’t give the subcontractor access to the site on time?  This basic indemnity operates so that the construction company indemnifies you for the poor job of the subcontractor, even if the poor job was your fault. You may be thinking well, that’s great, but it’s only great if you are the party receiving such an indemnity. That’s why basic indemnities should be avoided where possible.
  2. Proportionate or Limited Indemnities – These indemnities rectify the potential unfairness of a basic indemnity (explained above) as they limit the indemnity. Sticking with the example above, say you obtain an indemnity from the construction company to the effect that the construction company is liable for all losses ensuing from a subcontractor’s poor job – a limited indemnity will go on to state “except those losses incurred as a result of [your] own acts and/or omissions”. If the subcontractor’s poor job is your fault you don’t get compensated. Seems fair.
  3. Third Party Indemnities – If third parties are involved in the operation of the contract, as in the example above, you may not want anything to do with them since you are contracting with them. Following on from the above example, what happens if a subcontractor isn’t paid for their work? You wouldn’t want to be liable for that. You can protect against this by asking the construction company to indemnify you for all liabilities relating to its subcontractors so that the subcontractors are always the construction company’s issue and not yours.

These are very high level examples which would make most lawyers (if they’re good) chuckle. Indemnities can be very complex and they should at the very least always be more than a basic indemnity. Here are some of the things your lawyer should consider when drafting an indemnity clause for you:

  1. Scope – The scope of the indemnity must be clear so that the intended protection is given.
  2. Context – An indemnity clause should always be drafted in consideration of the wider commercial context of the agreement. Is it applicable?
  3. Extent – Who does the indemnity cover and are there any limitations to the indemnity? If the indemnity is given by the other side but not its contractors or representatives, then the extent to which this offers protection will be limited.
  4. Insurance: There is no point in having an indemnity if the indemnifier cannot pay out in an event of breach. An obligation to insure to a level consistent with the indemnity obligation will provide comfort that the indemnifier has the means to back up the indemnity given.
  5. Caps: Indemnities can be capped but any such cap should be subject to careful consideration. Where an indemnity has a financial cap, the indemnified party may, depending on any other limitation clauses, still have an uncapped claim in contract law for any breach of contract.

As with many of my posts, this is a very simplified overview. You really need a lawyer to draft indemnity clauses because they are essentially financial obligations with very serious consequences. The aim of this post is to make you aware of them so that you can ask your lawyer about them. You may want receive indemnities as added protection or you may want to offer indemnities to show the other side that you mean business (they can be great for negotiation)!  So go ahead and ask your lawyer about them. Pick up one of your contracts and check to see if you have a few in there already.

I must also emphasise that an indemnity is a distinct right from the right to claim damages for breach of contract. If the construction company breaches a clause in the contract you still have your common law right to sue for damages. Any limitations under an indemnity will be for that indemnity only. This is important because limited indemnities often exclude any loss ensuing from your own negligence whereas a claim for breach of contract can be brought even where you too have been negligent. Ask your lawyer, they’ll break it down for you!

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Cut it out: the beauty of a severance clause.

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It is said that the law is the fabric of society, without it we would have nothing but unruly human beasts roaming the earth’s surface. However in business, sometimes the law actually gets in the way. Yes you read that right. English law believes in freedom of contract, however there is always a risk that a contractual clause may be invalid or illegal – e.g. it offends against public policy or competition law – often this is the case with non-compete clauses and restrictive covenants (clauses that tell a party what they cannot do). This is why clever lawyers make use of “severance clauses” when drafting contracts.

A severance clause (or severability clause) tries to mitigate the damage that may be caused by the interference of the law in a contract. How does it do this? It ensures that a contract will continue to be enforceable even if one of its terms is found to be illegal, invalid or unenforceable. Severance clauses assist in helping a contract to SURVIVE. Pretty cool right? For example, if a contract for the sale and purchase of various vegetables is suddenly subject to a new law stating that no one can sell or purchase carrots (ridiculous but it’s an example), why should the contract die just because the sale and purchase of carrots is illegal? A severance clause would carve out or sever the ILLEGAL part of the contract and require the parties to continue to perform the remaining LEGAL part of the contract i.e. the selling and purchasing of courgettes (zucchinis), potatoes, aubergines (eggplants), peas and so forth. In other words, business shouldn’t stop if it doesn’t have to stop. This is why a severance clause is simply beautiful.

Let’s look at an example of a basic severance clause:

If a Clause of this Agreement is determined by any court or other competent authority to be unlawful and/or unenforceable, the other Clauses of this Agreement will continue in effect.

The above clause severs the illegal part of the contract. BETTER versions of a severance clause will try to sever as little of the illegal clause as possible. Here is an example:

If any unlawful and/or unenforceable Clause would be lawful or enforceable if part of it were deleted, that part will be deemed to be deleted, and the rest of the Clause will continue in effect (unless that would contradict the clear intention of the parties, in which case the entirety of the relevant Clause will be deemed to be deleted).

Even BETTER severance clauses will give the parties the option to modify or correct the would be severed clause, in order to make it legal. Here is an example:

If any provision or part-provision of this agreement is or becomes invalid, illegal or unenforceable, it shall be deemed modified to the minimum extent necessary to make it valid, legal and enforceable. If such modification is not possible, the relevant provision or part-provision shall be deemed deleted. Any modification to or deletion of a provision or part-provision under this clause shall not affect the validity and enforceability of the rest of this agreement.

If  any provision or part-provision of this agreement is invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the parties shall negotiate in good faith to amend such provision so that, as amended, it is legal, valid and enforceable, and, to the greatest extent possible, achieves the intended commercial result of the original provision.

Severance clauses are usually included in any contract as a boilerplate (standard) clause – however don’t take that for granted. Go check your contracts and flag this magical clause with your lawyer. Get your lawyer to advise you – could your severance clause be better? Do not rely/use the examples in this post, they are EXAMPLES. Your lawyer will draft a robust severance clause tailored to YOU.

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3 things you should be happy about before you hire a lawyer.

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Hiring a lawyer is a big, BIG deal. As I’ve said before, a great lawyer will facilitate your business and help you get to the next level, a bad lawyer will leave you feeling frustrated, perplexed and out of pocket. So when you decide to give some of your hard earned profits to a lawyer, you need to make sure that you get it right. Here are 3 things you should satisfy yourself of before you sign that retainer!

  1. Do you believe them? Lawyers are great talkers AND charmers. As soon as you tell them what you need help with, they will tell you that that specific thing is their particular expertise (sorry fellow lawyers). I’ve seen it done many times. A prospective client asks for help contracting with aliens on Mars and suddenly that lawyer has not only done some similar work in the past, they’ve been to Mars and had dinner with those very aliens! Don’t get me wrong, lawyers are excellent at coming up to speed on any issue, even if they’ve only remotely come across it before however you should still make them prove themselves! So the questions you have to ask are why can they do the job and will they do the job? The answers will help you to decide whether to believe them. WHY – ask for their qualifications and their actual experience. Ask them questions about your business and your industry – do they really know what they’re talking about? WILL – as you already know, in business, execution is key. You need to be confident that your lawyer will actually do what they say they will and that you won’t be chasing for updates. Do they have the relevant resources? In respect of bigger instructions, do they have a team to carry out the work? If they prove that they can do the work and will do the work in good time, then you can believe them. Stay away from the lawyers that reel off their client list to try and impress you….you could end up being the back of the queue.
  2. How do they help their community? Good old corporate responsibility! Do not over look this. Lawyers will flatter you to high heaven and impress you with their catalogue of work BUT a good way to tell if they really CARE is by assessing their charity. The best law firms know this and have a glossy pro bono team offering free legal services to those unable to afford legal representation. They also send their lawyers out to lecture, teach or tutor in their spare time. If you hear about a law firm or lawyer working in the community, that’s usually a sign that they have a soul and really will do what they say they will do. Ask the prospective lawyer what they do outside of work in their wider community?  What are their interests? This will also help you to get to know their personality and decide whether you  actually LIKE them.
  3. Meet everyone! In most cases your lawyer will be supported by a team of junior lawyers which they may head up and those junior lawyers will be the ones doing the work.  Ask to meet those people so that you can assess their personality and their experience. Are they bright? Do they know about your business or will they just be taking orders? How does the team function? It is important to feel confident that you will be looked after and that everyone who handles your work will give it the same level of care and attention. Also, meeting the team will inspire them. If that junior lawyer can out a face to the email address, they’ll work harder!

Ok so those are my 3 things to be happy  about before you hire a lawyer. It is well known that legal fees are not cheap BUT that doesn’t mean that you should part with your money just like that. You need to make sure that you’re in good hands. It’s not just about getting the work done. Engage a lawyer that you would want to hire as an employee in your business. The lawyer/client relationship is one that is built up and developed over years, so get it right!

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How to… speed sign low value contracts.

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Right, this goes against my lawyer instincts because in my opinion you should always read everything you sign, in as much detail as possible. However, if you genuinely do not have the time and it is a considerably low risk document (so not worth a million pounds/dollars), then here are three things to do before you sign which will alert you of any potential risks and give you some protection going forwards.

  1. Exclusion and limitation clauses – Look for these types of clauses or ask outright if there is such a clause in what you are signing (get them to refer you to it so you can check their honesty). This will list or summarise everything that the contract/document does not include and what the other party is not liable for. The best example of a document riddled with such clauses, is an insurance policy. When you sign an insurance policy, it is important that it covers what you want and one of the quickest ways to confirm this, is to take a quick look at what is excluded. For example Billy asks Janet for an insurance policy for his car. Janet gives him an insurance policy for his car. Billy is in a hurry for a meeting and trusts that he has been given a policy to insure his car, HOWEVER he flicks to the exclusion clause and sees that the policy does not cover RED cars. Billy’s car is maroon, so, arguably red. Billy takes this up with Janet. Janet amends the policy for Billy so that the operative clause clearly states that Billy’s maroon (and therefore not red) car is covered. Always check what a contract expressly excludes.  If it excludes accidental damage and you need it to cover all damage then obviously you are not signing. Another example would be a limitation of liability clause, often found in services contracts. Say for example you hire a professional polisher to polish your silver worth £3,000 but the contract of hire states that liability for any damage arising out of the contract at the fault of the professional polisher, is limited to £500 only. Obviously, you are not going to sign. Who’s going to pay for the remaining £2,500 worth of damage? Always check how liability of the other party is limited. If you sign a contract with a rubbish liability clause, that’s your fault.
  2. Payment provisions – Always check that the numbers are what you agreed. An extra zero here, a missing discount there is BAD for business. If you have agreed a specific discount just take that second to double check that it is expressly in the contract. DO NOT worry if the other party finds it offensive that you are checking, they will respect you for it. Even if my best friend gave me a contract to sign, I would check it right before their very eyes! Also, what happens if you pay late or you have a dispute with a charge? What does the contract say about that? Checking this clause or asking directly about this clause (then getting them to refer you to it specifically) will ensure that the most important thing of all, money, is properly accounted for!
  3. Termination – Imagine your face when you try to switch suppliers and you find that you have signed an indefinite contract! That’s a worst case, silly scenario but hopefully it highlights how important it is to know how to get out of a contract before you sign it (I’ve said this before). Business is unpredictable and you may need to get out of a contract really fast – knowing the termination provisions at the outset can help you to consider all possible scenarios in which you may want to terminate the contract early and therefore judge whether the contract in question is one you want to sign or amend.

I have to also add the obvious cautions, check who you are contracting with. If you are doing business with Joe Blogs Plc make sure it says Joe Bloggs Plc and not Joe Bloggs Ltd. Also, don’t forget the dates, it will take no time at all to make sure the document is dated correctly. Again, these are just TIPS for those of you ALREADY signing standard contracts without checking ANYTHING. If you are one of these people, at least check the above three things or else suffer the consequences. Once you sign a commercial contract, there is very little anyone can do for you if it turns out to be a bad deal. The Courts have no sympathy for business to business contracts because both parties are considered sophisticated.

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Do you need a break?

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When you’re running an up and coming business, costs are always on your mind. The less costs you have, the more profit you can make. So what do you do? You look for savings, HOWEVER, one of the biggest overheads of any business, often gets overlooked; RENT. In the UK most businesses rent their premises from a landlord as tenants under a lease. When the market was booming (pre-credit crunch) landlords had the upper hand setting high rents and long leases however in today’s challenging economic climate, landlords and tenants have found that long leases and high rents are no longer sustainable; there needs to be a compromise. This is why most commercial leases contain a BREAK clause which enables either the landlord or the tenant or BOTH to end the lease early and seek better terms elsewhere.

How does it work?

Say for example, you own a restaurant. You have a three year lease. In year one, business is booming however in year two, it’s not doing so well because the government has got rid of a big housing estate next door causing footfall to significantly decrease. You still have to pay your rent which in year one, was a piece of cake but now in year two, is a massive burden. You review your lease agreement but ALAS you’re locked in until the end of year 3. You go to the bank to apply for a loan. Whilst doing this you spot a great  empty space in a shopping centre round the corner. You know that your business would thrive there. You review your lease again, alas,  NOTHING HAS CHANGED, you’re STILL locked in until the end of year 3.

In the above scenario, not having a break clause in your lease prohibits you from getting out of a high rent deal in a poor area for your business. Your overheads increase and your profits decrease. Let’s look at this scenario WITH a break clause.

You have a three year lease. As soon as business starts to fail in year two you begin to review your options. You look closely at your lease agreement and to your joy you see that you have a break clause that kicks in after 18 months. You serve a notice to your landlord in accordance with the lease agreement, notifying him that you want to end your lease early. Your landlord accepts and at 18 months you move out of the premises and into the space that you spotted in the shopping centre. HAPPY DAYS.

Can you see the benefits for your business in having a break clause? It gives you some leeway to reassess one of your business’ biggest expenditures. In some circumstances where the location and premises still suit your business needs but the rent is just too high notifying your landlord that you are thinking of sending a notice to activate your break clause could help to bring your landlord to the negotiation table and agree a more sustainable rent. Landlords are business people too and what they value more than anything else is reliable tenants. However, as with everything in law (and that’s why you need a lawyer) there is more to it than just having a break clause and sending a notice. Here are a few considerations to bear in mind:

  1. Form and Service of Notice – You must comply exactly with method and form of service of a notice to exercise a break clause. Also once the notice has been served, it cannot be withdrawn. If the notice complies, you WILL be moving out so consider it seriously.
  2. Timing – It is important when drafting and negotiating the break clause that it is clear when the break date is and what the required notice period is. A break clause may occur on one or more specified dates or be exercisable after a specific period of time has elapsed. Your lawyer can help you work out what works for your business. Landlords usually never want to lose a tenant so they will hold you to strict compliance with the break clause notice provisions; the best thing is to diarise them so that you always have them on your radar and  consider them well in advance.
  3. Break conditions – These conditions must be strictly adhered to. If these pre-conditions are not complied with, your break notice may not be accepted. The most common pre-condition is that all rents due under the lease must have been paid. You must make sure that your lawyer negotiates this condition carefully. A lot of money is wasted in court where it is not clear whether a tenant has to pay a full quarter’s rent or just the apportioned rent up to the date of the break clause. There have been instances where a tenant has had to pay the full rent with no refund. Another pre-condition is that the tenant must give up vacant possession meaning the premises should be EMPTY. Take all your stuff and go.

So do you need a break? Yes! Make sure that you are always giving your business options and do NOT forget to use them.

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Read the SMALL print


Yup! It’s as simple as that. Read the small print! Read the disclaimers (this blog has one). Read the exclusion clauses. Read the terms and conditions.

I get so annoyed when I see companies or blogs or ANYTHING referring to the small print as “legal mumbo jumbo”. I can assure you that the small print it is NOT mumbo jumbo. It is a coherent stream of dos and don’ts that could NEGATIVELY affect your business – the SMALL print can have BIG consequences!

So do yourself a favour and take the time to read and understand the small print. Ask questions too! If you see something you don’t like, can you get a waiver? Can you negotiate out of it? Or maybe it’s not worth going ahead with at all? Again, reading and understanding contracts, offers etc gives your business options.

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Before you sign: Dispute Resolution


Contrary to what the majority of people believe, when you have a contractual bust up with the other side litigation or arbitration should be the last resort. THE LAST RESORT. Taking a dispute to court is extremely expensive in any country and it should only ever really be done when you can’t do anything else. This is why good lawyers review the dispute resolution clause before signing to ensure that a dispute between the parties can be RESOLVED by cheaper alternative methods and is not just fast tracked to formal litigation or arbitration. These other ways are known as alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and it is becoming more and more common for dispute resolution clauses to build in some of these alternative forms of dispute resolution as a precursor to any formal proceedings.

The forms of ADR are abundant. ADR can be anything from SIMPLE NEGOTIATION between senior members of either party to MEDIATION whereby an independent third party (called a mediator) helps you and the other parties to talk things through and guides you to a settlement agreement (a document setting out the agreement reached between the parties). ADR is less confrontational and is more likely to encourage business relationships to continue. HOWEVER essentially ADR is NOT binding in the same way as a JUDGMENT given at court or an AWARD (which is basically a judgment) given in arbitral proceedings (small caveat here, arbitral awards are binding so long as international treaties are in place in the relevant countries, such as the New York Convention…this is a topic for another post). This means that you CAN’T actually make the other side COMPLY with whatever you have agreed with them as a result of the ADR. For example if the other side failed to act in accordance with the settlement agreement you would have to sue them for breach of the settlement agreement. CONSEQUENTLY, if the other side is being obstructive and uncooperative in the ADR procedures take that as a warning that A BINDING judgment is required and that maybe formal legal proceedings are necessary.

So how can you incorporate these more friendly and way cheaper ADR forums into your dispute resolution clause? Well the ways are infinite and you NEED a lawyer to ensure that this clause is carefully drafted. HOWEVER, generally, dispute resolution clauses are either multi-tiered or drafted as carve out clauses.

Multi–tiered dispute resolution clauses require the parties to engage in tiers (stages) of ADR and only when a stage fails can the parties progress to the next stage with the last stage being formal court or arbitral proceedings. If the dispute is truly and obviously irreconcilable (you hate each other) it would of course be possible to waive the tiered obligations by mutual consent and skip straight to the expensive bust up. Here is an example of a tiered dispute resolution clause:

“If any dispute arises out of or in connection with this agreement or its formation, directors or other senior representatives of the parties with authority to settle the dispute will, within [ ] days of a written request from one party to the other, meet in a good faith effort to resolve the dispute. If the dispute is not wholly resolved at that meeting, the parties will attempt to settle it by mediation in accordance with the CEDR Model Mediation Procedure. Unless otherwise agreed between the parties within [ ] days of notice of the dispute, the mediator will be nominated by CEDR. To initiate the mediation a party must give notice in writing (“ADR notice”) to the other party(ies) to the dispute requesting mediation. A copy of the request should be sent to CEDR. Unless otherwise agreed, the mediation will start not later than [ ] days after the date of the ADR notice. If the dispute is not settled by mediation within [ ] days of commencement of the mediation or within such further period as the parties may agree in writing, the dispute shall be referred to and finally resolved by arbitration.”

As mentioned above, dispute resolution clauses can also be carve-out clauses. Carve out clauses allow for some disputes to be resolved through arbitration/litigation and other disputes relating to other aspects of the parties’ relationship to be referred to a form of ADR. For example a dispute relating to the quality of a product (a computer) supplied to a purchaser might be referred to an expert in that field (a computer engineer – this is called expert determination), and all other disputes relating to the contract (for example exclusivity or payment terms) might be referred to litigation or arbitration.

The point of this post is to encourage you to GIVE yourself OPTIONS when it comes to resolving the disputes under your contracts. You don’t have to go straight to court or arbitration (did I mention these forums are EXPENSIVE). You can take a breather and try to settle things amicably (and CHEAPLY) first. ALSO please do not use the example clause in this post in your contracts – it is an EXAMPLE. There are several other factors that MUST be considered when drafting dispute resolution clauses and this is why you really need a lawyer’s drafting skills here. Some dispute resolution clauses have been deemed by the English courts to be unenforceable or not part of the contract at all because of bad drafting. So never sign a contract without considering this clause and thinking about the best ways to resolve disputes for your business HOWEVER this is not A DIY clause by any means.

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Before you sign: Termination

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In continuation of the “Before you sign” series, I present the third potentially deadly clause for your review…TERMINATION. A termination clause is effectively your get out of jail FREE card in any contract so long as you DRAFT it that way. This is why you need to understand your contract so that you know a) what you want (life is good and business continues as normal) and b) what you do not want (often that the deal has soured and you need to end it). Termination clauses set out WHEN either party can LAWFULLY terminate the contract. The consequence of UNLAWFULLY (so not complying with the termination clause) terminating the contract is that you are most likely sued by the other party/parties to the contract for damages (compensation).

There are different circumstances in which you may want to terminate a contract. You may just want to try out a business relationship and give yourself the option to walk away if you don’t think there is a future in it. In this instance your termination clause should specifically enable you to end the contract on a short period of notice, for example 3 months after a fixed initial period of 6 months – this is termination for convenience or “without cause”. Either party can walk away after a set period of time simply because you have given each other the opportunity to do so. Of course it is also possible for a contract to just end naturally for example by effluxion of time (the contract runs its term), or by both parties performing their obligations under the contract. For example A contracts with B for delivery of 70 tennis balls on X date in return for A paying B a fee, once B delivers the 70 tennis balls in accordance with the contract and A pays B, the contract is over.

HOWEVER more likely than not you will want to make sure that you can terminate the contract when the other party BREACHES (messes up) the contract. Here are some examples of when that might be:

  1. The other party has committed a MATERIAL breach of the contract that CANNOT be remedied – so this is when you receive something SUBSTANTIALLY DIFFERENT from what the contract specified, for example, if the contract specifies the sale of a box of tennis balls and you as the buyer receive a box of footballs. Or you hire an artist to perform the piano at your event but they turn up with a guitar. Such a fundamental breach should entitle you to terminate the contract immediately without notice to the other party. 
  2. The other party has committed a MATERIAL/SUBSTANTIAL breach of the contract that is capable of being remedied but has failed to remedy that breach within a set period of time – so this is when the other party has breached the contract AND the breach is fixable HOWEVER the other party has  failed to fix it within the set period of time. In such circumstances you will want the right to terminate the contract. For example you order pink balloons and the other party delivers blue balloons. You still have balloons but they’re not the right colour, you will notify the other party giving them a chance to send you the correct colour balloons by a certain time in accordance with the contract (say 7 days). The other party fails to send the correct balloons by your deadline OR sends white balloons. You will want to terminate the contract and sue for damages. Please also note that even where a failing party manages to remedy its material breach within a set period of time, the innocent party could still seek damages for any loss caused by the breach. For example You have a restaurant that requires 100 burgers and 100 hot dogs but you only receive a delivery of 70 burgers and 70 hot dogs from your supplier. By the time your supplier has delivered the remaining 30 burgers and 30 hot dogs, you’ve missed out on business or you’ve had to buy more expensive burgers and hot dogs at short notice from another supplier to meet the demand of your customers. You will want to sue for the loss you suffered during this time even if you continue the contract with your original supplier.
  1. The other party persistently breaches the contract in MINOR ways which altogether have a negative impact on the performance of the contract E.G continuously delivering goods late, being late with services without a reasonable excuse, persistently making late payments (this can affect cash flow) or continuously failing to meet sales targets or sales quotas within a period of time. You will want the right to pull the plug on the contract after a while. It will be up to you to determine, in your contract, when enough is enough in respect of these minor breaches. For example you would not want to terminate the contract for one late payment but you might want to terminate it for three consecutive late payments.
  2. The other party has become insolvent or bankrupt or is in the process of becoming so – the other party has gone bust or is clearly in financial trouble. You will really want to get out of the contract in this situation so you must make sure that your contract allows you to do so.
  3. You anticipate that the other party is about to breach the contract (an anticipatory breach) – so this is where the other party has made it known that they will not be carrying out the agreed work or they effectively stop acting in accordance with the contract, leading the other party to believe that they have no intention of fulfilling their part of the agreement. For example the other party persistently fails to produce an ordered item or refuses to accept payment. You will want to end the contract and sue for damages WITHOUT WAITING for the actual breach to occur.

Termination clauses are complex and this is where you really need a lawyer’s help. If you do not expressly make provisions in your contract for the different scenarios in which you want to terminate the contract, your contract will be subject to common law (this is the case in the UK but check the consequence in your country). Common law is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals that decide individual cases. If you leave your contract to the mercy of common law you could end up spending heaps of money paying lawyers to work out which case law applies to your particular contract’s circumstances and then even more money when the other side says your application of the common law is wrong and takes you to court! 

Basically, ALWAYS make express provision in your contract as to when it can be terminated.

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